Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excessive amounts of inattention, carelessness, hyperactivity (which can evolve into inner restlessness in adulthood), and impulsivity that are pervasive, impairing, and otherwise age-inappropriate. Some individuals with ADHD also display difficulty regulating emotions and have executive dysfunction. For a diagnosis, the symptoms have to cause problems in at least two settings (such as school, home, work, or leisure time) for over six months. In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance. ADHD is also associated with other mental disorders and substance use disorders, which can cause additional impairment, especially in modern society. Although people with ADHD struggle to focus on tasks they are not particularly interested in completing, they are often able to maintain an unusually prolonged and intense level of attention for tasks they do find interesting or rewarding; this is known as hyperfocus.
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The precise causes of ADHD are unknown in the majority of cases. Toxins and infections during pregnancy and brain damage may be environmental risks. Despite a popular myth, it does not appear to be related to any particular style of parenting or discipline. It affects about 5–7% of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria and 1–2% when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria. As of 2019, it was estimated to affect 84.7 million people globally. Rates are similar between countries and differences in rates depend mostly on how it is diagnosed. ADHD (Buy adderall Uk) is diagnosed approximately twice as often in boys than in girls, and 1.6 times more often in men than in women, although the disorder is overlooked in girls or diagnosed in later life because their symptoms sometimes differ from diagnostic criteria. About 30–50% of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have ADHD in adulthood, with between 2–5% of all adults being diagnosed with the condition.
In adults, hyperactivity is usually replaced by inner restlessness, and adults often develop coping skills to compensate for their impairments. The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other conditions, as well as from high levels of activity within the range of normal behavior. ADHD (Buy Concerta online) management recommendations vary by country and usually involve some combination of medications, counseling, and lifestyle changes. The British guideline emphasizes environmental modifications and education for individuals and carers about ADHD as the first response. If symptoms persist, parent-training, medication, or psychotherapy (especially cognitive behavioral therapy) can be recommended based on age. Canadian and American guidelines recommend medications and behavioral therapy together, except in preschool-aged children for whom the first-line treatment is behavioral therapy alone. Stimulant medications are the most effective pharmaceutical treatment, although there may be side effects and any improvements will be reverted if medication is ceased. ADHD, its diagnosis, and its treatment have been considered controversial since the 1970s. These controversies have involved doctors, teachers, policymakers, parents, and the media. Topics have included causes of ADHD and the use of stimulant medications in its treatment. ADHD is now a well-validated clinical diagnosis in children and adults, and the debate in the scientific community mainly centers on how it is diagnosed and treated. ADHD was officially known as attention deficit disorder (ADD) from 1980 to 1987; prior to the 1980s, it was known as hyperkinetic reaction of childhood. Symptoms similar to those of ADHD have been described in medical literature dating back to the 18th century.
Signs and Symptoms
Inattention, hyperactivity (restlessness in adults), disruptive behavior, and impulsivity are common in ADHD. Academic difficulties are frequent as are problems with relationships. The symptoms can be difficult to define, as it is hard to draw a line at where normal levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity end and significant levels requiring interventions begin.
According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Buy Concerta) (DSM-5) and its text revision (DSM-5-TR), symptoms must be present for six months or more to a degree that is much greater than others of the same age. This requires at least 6 symptoms of either inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity for those under 17 and at least 5 symptoms for those 17 years or older. The symptoms must be present in at least two settings (e.g., social, school, work, or home), and must directly interfere with or reduce quality of functioning. Additionally, several symptoms must have been present before age twelve